Exogenous cells enhance endogenous reparative mechanisms rather than replace wounded brain tissue.
It was once thought that intravenously administered cells would home in on the injured site and replace the dead neurons.
Still, current thinking holds that these cells release numerous trophic factors such as VEGF, IGF, BDNF, and tissue growth factors that stimulate brain plasticity and recovery mechanisms.
Some primary methods through which intravenous stem cells serve as "chaperones" include upregulation of growth hormones, avoiding cell death, and strengthening the synaptic connection between the host and graft.
Preclinical studies have demonstrated that cell treatment improves functional recovery after acute, subacute, and chronic stroke.
Still, little research has examined various time windows, with findings varying depending on the analyzed model system and cell type.
The unique ability of stem cells has been used to develop a cell-based treatment for various neurological illnesses, including brain stroke.
Adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells), embryonic stem cells, and the most recent kind, induced pluripotent stem cells, have all been employed in investigations.
Depending on the severity of the ailment, the dosage, administration, and whether or not booster doses are necessary to have all been studied.
NSC engraftment has been shown to rebuild synaptic connections and enhance the electrophysiological characteristics of mature neurons in the injured brain.
MSCs are multipotent stem cells that find a home in bodily tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, tooth pulp, etc.
MSC extraction from these tissues is a well-established and straightforward procedure that has been frequently employed in clinical studies.
MSCs generated from adipose tissue be as effective in neuro-regeneration, with the additional benefit of being more freely accessible and numerous.
iPSCs offer an advantage over other forms of stem cells since they are non-immunogenic, simple to acquire, non-interventional, and do not raise ethical problems. Their generation is still an unsolved problem because of the poor reprogramming efficiency.
Exogenous stem cells have been reported to move to injured brain tissue, then engage in healing damaged brain tissue by further differentiation to replace damaged cells while releasing anti-inflammatory and growth factors, considerably increasing neurological function.