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Female Infertility - Signs, Causes, And Treatments


Pregnancy planning is a fun and exciting process that requires a lot of organization. Your reproductive status and any indicators of infertility should be taken into account.

That is to say, you have been actively trying to conceive for more than a year through natural, unprotected sexual intercourse.

It can be challenging to identify the root reason of female infertility. Depending on the underlying reason of infertility, a wide range of options are available for treatments.

Definition And Signs Of Female Infertility

Infertility is a medical condition in which a woman's capacity to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term is diminished or compromised. Most of the time, this is found after a year of trying to get pregnant, but it can be found earlier if certain things are true.

COPYRIGHT_SZ: Published on https://stationzilla.com/female-infertility/ by Dr. Cooney Blades on 2023-01-23T06:33:36.264Z

One-third of the causes of infertility may be traced back to issues on either the male or female side, while the remaining third are attributable to a mix of factors or remain a mystery. Female infertility occurs when the female spouse is the root cause of the inability to conceive.

In the United States, infertility affects between 12% and 13% of couples. Globally, that figure rises to 17%. While it may be challenging to spot the symptoms of infertility, there are certain indicators to look out for, such as:

Infertility, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Painful Periods

Painful periods may be an indication of uterine fibroids or endometriosis. Endometriosis is the underlying cause of infertility in between 20% to 40% of women.

Irregular Periods

On average, a woman's menstrual cycle lasts roughly 28 days. If the cycle is constant, however, it can last anywhere from 21 to 35 days. If your menstrual cycle is abnormal, you have no way of knowing when your next menstruation will be, which can cause infertility.

Painful Sex

Many people just accept painful sex as something that women have to go through to live. However, it could be an indicator of a more serious problem, such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease.

Vaginal Soreness Or Itchiness

Vaginal infections can cause pain, itching, and discharge. Infertility can occur if sexually transmitted diseases including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and mycoplasma are not treated.

Absence Of Periods

Sometimes you might miss your period because of short-term stress or too much exercise. But if you haven't menstruated in a few months, you might want to talk to a doctor.

Hormonal Imbalance

Hormonal abnormalities may manifest itself in a variety of ways, including rapid weight gain, hair loss, chronic weariness, swelling, migraines, nipple discharge, facial hair, or severe acne are just a few examples. The inability to conceive is exacerbated by the presence of several disorders, which cause hormonal imbalances in the body.

Causes Of Female Infertility

Human reproduction is a complex process, and everything has to work properly for a pregnancy to develop. The process of fertilization begins when one of the ovaries releases a mature egg, which is then picked up by the fallopian tube; sperm travel up the cervix, through the uterus, and into the fallopian tube; the fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it implants and begins to grow.

The root causes of infertility might be complex and multifaceted. Some couples, however, have "unexplained" infertility or "multifactorial infertility," in which the specific cause cannot be determined. Infertility due to a female factor may have several potential reasons, such as:

Female Infertility Causes

Problems With Ovulation

There are numerous causes for a woman's irregular ovulation. Ovulation can be impacted by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, pituitary tumors, eating disorders, substance addiction, thyroid issues, and extreme stress.

Problems With The Uterus

This covers any growths inside the uterine cavity, such as adhesions, fibroids, septa, or polyps. Other anomalies (such as septum) are present from birth, whereas polyps and fibroids can arise on their own at any moment. After a procedure such as dilation and curettage (D&C), adhesions may develop.

Problems With Egg Number And Quality

Even though women are born with all their eggs, they might run out before menopause. Some eggs may have a wrong number of chromosomes, making them unsuitable for fertilization or fetal development. Balanced translocation may effect all eggs. The others are rare but become more common as women age.

Problems With The Fallopian Tubes

Infertility due to the "tubal factor" is most frequently caused by pelvic inflammatory illness, which is typically brought on by chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Unexplained Infertility

Sometimes, doctors are unable to determine why a couple is unable to conceive. Infertility that defies explanation may be the result of a number of little variables present in both couples. The lack of a clear solution is disheartening, but maybe the situation will improve over time. The treatment for infertility, however, should not be put off.

Risk Factors Of Female Infertility

There are risk factors for infertility, and they include:


The quality and quantity of a woman's eggs begin to decline with age. In the mid-30s, the rate of follicle loss speeds, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs. This makes conception more difficult, and increases the risk of miscarriage.


Smoking raises the odds of having a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy, in addition to harming the cervix and fallopian tubes. Furthermore, it may hasten the aging of your ovaries and the depletion of your egg supply. To improve your chances of success with fertility treatment, you should quit smoking immediately.


Being overweight or extremely underweight may impact ovulation. It has been suggested that achieving a healthy body mass index (BMI) can boost ovulation and fertility.

Sexual History

The fallopian tubes are vulnerable to damage from STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Having numerous unprotected sexual partners raises the likelihood of contracting an STD, which can lead to infertility down the line.


Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol might have a negative effect on fertility.

Gynaecology - Infertility in Women (causes and pathophysiology)

Treatment Of Female Infertility

Having difficulty conceiving right now might not prevent you from starting a family in the future. Many infertile couples go on to have healthy babies. The many potential causes of infertility can be addressed by a variety of treatments, such as:

Fertility Drugs

These medicines have the potential to aid people with ovarian diseases by boosting the hormones in charge of egg maturation and release. Ovarian hyperstimulation and an increased risk of developing ovarian malignancies are two potential negative outcomes of utilizing fertility medications.

Surgical Procedures

The uterus and/or fallopian tubes may need surgery to fix a variety of issues. The high success rate of alternative infertility treatments has led to a dramatic decrease in the rate with which surgical techniques are employed.

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is another treatment option that fertility physicians may suggest. As the lady is ovulating, millions of healthy sperm are injected into her uterus.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the gold standard in assisted reproductive technology. Fertilization occurs in a laboratory when a ripe egg is removed from the mother. The resulting fertilized egg is reintroduced into the uterus. Successful implantation requires several weeks of this procedure and daily hormone injections.

People Also Ask

What Is The Main Cause Of Female Infertility?

Failing to ovulate accounts for 40% of cases of female infertility, making it the most prevalent overall cause. Several medical and gynecological diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), might prevent ovulation.

What Is Female Infertility Called?

Any one of these processes could go wrong, potentially leading to infertility. Women who have trouble conceiving or carrying a pregnancy to term are said to have impaired fecundity, a condition related to infertility.

What Is The Most Common Female Factor In Infertility Cases?

Ovulation disorders, uterine or fallopian tube damage, and cervix issues are the most common reasons women can't get pregnant. Since a woman's fertility often declines with age, advanced maternal age can be a contributing factor in infertility.


You are not alone if you are experiencing female infertility. Fortunately, there are a number of treatments available, as well as a wealth of information to help you become ready to conceive. Women who have infertility should consult a doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

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About The Authors

Dr. Cooney Blades

Dr. Cooney Blades

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