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Surgical Techniques - Overview Of Basic Surgical Procedures


Surgical techniques use various equipment to diagnose and treat different conditions, including deformities, injuries, and diseases. Smaller incisions and shorter recovery durations are now more likely to be the results of surgical procedures than in the past.

Several different types of surgical procedures may be performed, depending on the kind of operation that has to be done.

Basic surgical technique

Surgical Techniques For Cancer


COPYRIGHT_SZ: Published on https://stationzilla.com/surgical-techniques/ by Alexander McCaslin on 2022-10-06T23:17:33.319Z

Cancer surgery uses a scalpel. Cancer diagnostic operations include needles, forceps, and scissors. These traditional cancer surgery tools are being replaced by laser and radiation. These new surgical tools often reduce operating time, pain for cancer patients, and side effects like scarring.

The still-developing "Smart Scalpel" can identify cancer cells. A "Smart Scalpel," a dime-sized biological laser, can detect aberrant protein-containing cells (as cancer cells usually do). This technology should let surgeons remove cancerous tissue while preserving healthy tissue.


Cryosurgery destroys cancer cells with intense cold. It's traditionally been used to treat external tumors, including those on the skin, but some doctors also use it to treat cancers on the inside. Technological advances have made cryosurgery for internal malignancies more common.

For external malignancies, liquid nitrogen is sprayed using a cotton swab or spraying equipment. For internal malignancies, a cryoprobe circulates liquid nitrogen over the tumor.

Ultrasound guides the cryoprobe and monitors cell freezing (computerized moving pictures of the body generated by high-frequency sound waves). Ultrasound helps doctors save healthy tissue. Cryosurgery includes freezing, thawing, and refretting a tumor.

Electrocauterization Surgery

Electrocautery (EC) cauterizes tissue with acid, electricity, or heat. Electrocautery cauterizes (burns or destroys) tissue using a tiny probe with an electric current. Electrocautery is used to burn undesirable or dangerous tissue in surgery. It "burns" bleeding blood vessels to lessen or halt bleeding (seals them off). Specific treatments need different tips (probes).

Fulguration is a form of electrocautery. Electrodesiccation destroys tissue with diathermy. Electrodesiccation helps the bladder. Through the urethra and a cystoscope, bladder electrodesiccation is conducted.

Laser Surgery

A unique light beam is created using a sophisticated electrical procedure. This light has one wavelength or hue. All the light rays are directed in one direction. Similarly, sunlight can be concentrated using a magnifying glass.

Many things employ lasers. Finely focused laser beams may increase a surgeon's accuracy. Lasers coagulate blood arteries as they cut tissue, reducing bleeding. Others may be transmitted via endoscopes' fiber-optic lines to reach unreachable locations.

In laser surgery, various wavelengths are used to address different ailments. The yellow laser light absorbed by "portwine stain" red blood cells may selectively destroy the birthmark without damaging surrounding skin cells. Normal skin scarring is reduced or prevented.

Drugs that tumors store are pumped into the body and set off by lasers. This kills only the tumor and spares healthy tissue. Lasers often cut medical costs. Many outpatient operations that formerly needed hospitalization are now possible.

A doctor is doing eye laser surgery on a patient
A doctor is doing eye laser surgery on a patient

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

PDT employs lasers to activate light-sensitive medicines to noninvasively treat cancer (and other disorders). PDT is cancer-directed surgery with unique codes for distinct central locations.

En Bloc Resection

En-bloc resection removes a lesion and surrounding tissues. "En bloc" means all tissues were removed during the same process, although not in a single specimen.

Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques

Minimally invasive surgery encompasses all surgical procedures that avoid the necessity for major incisions. This cutting-edge method facilitates a speedier and pain-free recovery for the patient. Currently, the term "minimally invasive surgery" encompasses various surgical procedures. This may help doctors diagnose conditions, take tissue samples for testing, and mend broken bones:

  • Laparoscopy: Abdominal laparoscopy is a minimally invasive treatment that employs a tube with a light and a camera lens at the end (laparoscope) to see internal organs and detect abnormalities. Surgeons often use laparoscopy to inspect side organs without resorting to massive incisions. Some kind of tissue sample collection maycur as well.
  • Endoscopy: Examining the digestive tract's hollow organs with a short, flexible tube outfitted with a light and camera lens (endoscope). It is also possible to collect tissue samples from the gastrointestinal system for further analysis. Gastric endoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy are all types of endoscopy.
  • Arthroscopy: Arthroscopes allow surgeons to see within a joint for diagnostic purposes. The inside of a joint like the knee, shoulder, or hip may be inspected and perhaps repaired with this method.
  • Bronchoscopy: Flexible tube examination of the bronchi (the lung's primary airways) (bronchoscope). With the use of a bronchoscope, a doctor may examine a patient's airways, look for obstructions, collect tissue or fluid samples, and even remove a foreign object from the lungs.
  • Thoracoscopy: Chest cavity minimally invasive surgery.
  • Cystoscopy: The procedure entails inserting a viewing tube up the urethra and into the bladder.
  • Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination of the stomach.
  • Hysteroscopy: Examination of the cervix and uterus using an endoscope.
  • Laryngoscopy: Checking out the vocal cords' home using a viewing tube or mirror.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: Colonoscopy examination of the rectus and sigmoid colon.
  • Colonoscopy: A complete colon examination is performed using an endoscope.

How Does The Surgeon Select The Appropriate Treatment For Each Case?

When dealing with anteroinferior shoulder instability, the surgeon must handle more than just the problem of the instability itself. Decision-making in selecting the proper therapy for each case is as essential as the technical exercise of conducting the surgical surgery once the surgeon has sufficiently evaluated each patient and accurately recognized the structural defects.

When glenohumeral bone abnormalities and capsular inadequacy are present, the likelihood of failure is quite significant. The type of surgery (open or arthroscopic) should depend on the damage to the structure that has been found.

What Is Pinhole Gum Surgery?

Gum recession may be treated using a minimally invasive procedure known as pinhole surgery or the Chao pinhole surgical method (PST). With gum grafting, soft tissue can be added to bare roots without using scalpels or stitches.

Your dentist or periodontist will make a tiny incision in the gums and introduce a specific instrument to loosen the gum tissue from the tooth and bone underneath. And then, they lower the gumline by repositioning the gum tissue over the root.

Dr. John Chao, a dentist from Alhambra, California, and a research professor of periodontics at UB, SUNY, created the pinhole surgical method. The gold standard for gum recession is gum grafting, which uses tissue from your palate or a dead person as a donor. This new method is less invasive.

People Also Ask

What Are The Common Surgical Procedures For Bypass Surgery?

At the time of operation, a vein graft is placed above and below the blocked section of the coronary artery, creating a bypass that allows blood to flow past the blockage. A bypass graft may be made from various donor organs, most often veins from the leg and arteries from the chest.

What Are The Different Types Of Minimally Invasive Surgery?

"minimally invasive surgery" today encompasses a wide range of surgical procedures. Both open and minimally invasive surgeries may use the following alternate techniques to typical surgical knives: Laser surgery uses a technology that can produce a narrow beam of light for surgical procedures.

What Are The Different Methods Of Surgery?

Modern surgical techniques have reduced the need for extensive incisions compared to the past. Various surgical procedures may be used, depending on the nature of the operation: When a patient has what is known as "open" surgery, the surgeon makes incisions in the patient's skin and other tissues to get access to internal organs or structures.

Final Words

The goals of surgical techniques are to alleviate symptoms as soon as possible, facilitate the use of additional treatments included in the care plan, and forestall consequences that might arise in the absence of therapy.

Surgical techniques may be performed after a thorough patient evaluation, including the patient's medical history. After determining the most probable source of the issue, proper treatment may begin.

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About The Authors

Alexander McCaslin

Alexander McCaslin

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