The cranium comprises the cranial bones, which are the bones that encase and safeguard the brain, and the facial bones (bones that form the eye sockets, nose, cheeks, jaw, and other parts of the face).
The spinal cord and the brain are connected by a passageway that may be found near the base of the skull.
Also known as the skull.
The skull is a bony structure supporting the face and protecting the brain.
It is made up of numerous bones that are connected by sutures and created by intramembranous ossification (fibrous joints).
The skull bones are divided into the cranium (which includes the cranial roof and base) and those of the face.
The superior portion of the skull forms the cranium (also known as the neurocranium). It protects and encloses the brain, meninges, and cerebral vasculature.
The skull is separated anatomically into a roof and a base:
The frontal, occipital, and parietal bones are the cranial roof. The calvarium is another name for it.
The cranial base comprises the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, occipital, parietal, and temporal bones.
These bones connect to the first cervical vertebra (atlas), facial bones, and mandible (jaw).
The soft tissues of the face are supported by the facial skeleton (also known as the viscerocranium).
It comprises 14 bones that join to form the orbits of the eyes, nasal and oral cavities, and sinuses.
The frontal bone, usually a calvaria bone, is occasionally included in the facial skeleton.
The facial bones are as follows:
- Zygomatic (2) - creates the face's cheekbones and articulates with the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, and maxilla bones.
- Lacrimal (2) - the tiniest bones in the face. They are part of the orbit's medial wall.
- Nasal (2) - two thin bones found on the bridge of the nose.
- Inferior nasal conchae (2) - These bones, which are positioned inside the nasal cavity, increase the surface area of the nasal cavity, allowing more inspired air to come into touch with the cavity walls.
- Palatine (2) is located toward the back of the oral cavity and is part of the hard palate.
- Maxilla (2) – consists of the upper jaw and the hard palate.
- Vomer – forms the nasal septum's posterior portion.
- At the temporomandibular joint, the mandible (jaw) articulates with the skull base (TMJ).
Sutures are a form of fibrous joint found only in the skull. They are immobile and merge around the age of 20.
These joints are significant in the context of trauma because they represent possible areas of weakness in the skull. The following are the primary sutures in the adult skull:
The frontal bone is joined to the two parietal bones by the coronal suture.
The sagittal suture connects both parietal bones.
The occipital bone is joined to the two parietal bones by the lambdoid suture.
Fontanelles are membranous spaces between bones in newborns caused by incompletely fused suture joints. The two most essential fontanelles are:
- The frontal fontanelle is found at the coronal and sagittal sutures intersection.
- The occipital fontanelle is found at the sagittal and lambdoid sutures intersection.
The human skull comprises 22 bones (or 29 if you include the inner ear bones and the hyoid bone), generally joined by ossified joints known as sutures.
The braincase (neurocranium) and facial skeleton are separated by the skull (viscerocranium).
Its primary function is to protect the brain, the most vital organ in the human body.
The neurocranium nearly completely encloses the brain, except for the foramen magnum and other foramina at the base of the skull that serves as entrance and departure points for blood vessels and cranial nerves.
In addition, the skull supports all of the face structures.
Human skull with teeth in white color
Cranial nerves connect to the brain and pass through the holes in the skull.
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves are symmetrically placed and mainly serve the head and neck structures.
The vagus nerve, which reaches down to service tissues in the chest and belly, is the exception.
Some cranial nerves are sensory and motor (they govern motion and convey sensory impulses), while othersare purely sensory or solely motor.
Concerning the cranium or skull. 2. Towards the brow. In contrast to caudad.
About, or being a tail. Located at or oriented toward the back of the body caudally is another word for caudally.
The bones that make up the head. The skull comprises cranial bones (which surround and protect the brain) and facial bones (bones that form the eye sockets, nose, cheeks, jaw, and other face parts).
The spinal cord joins the brain via a hole at the skull base.
The cranium—the section of the skull that encloses the brain—is frequently referred to as the braincase.
However, due to its proximity to the sense organs for sight, hearing, smell, taste, and other structures, this term is somewhat misleading.
The human skull, which houses the brain, is spherical in shape and rather massive in proportion to the face.
In most other animals, the cranium is bigger than the facial part of the skull, which includes the top teeth and nose.